1. Does the oil need to be hot, engine running, engine just switched off, or cold is fine?
Answer per Blackstone: https://www.blackstone-labs.com/gas-sampling.php
Answer per me: I take my samples from a hot, running engine; but I have bypass filters with a sampling petcock; it's pretty easy and mess free. I wear leather TIG welding gloves in case of accidental contact with hot engine parts. To sample from my son's car, (no petcock), I remove the oil filler cap (with the hot motor idling) and carefully insert the sampling tube into a "puddle" of oil in a low area cast into the cylinder head; it may take several "draws" and a few minutes to get enough oil for the sample bottle.2. If the tube does not go down the dipstick what is another way I can get to the oil without draining it?
Answer per me: You can also loosen the oil filter a little and catch some oil, I've done this with a clean spare glass beaker and then poured it into the sampling bottle, but I would NOT attempt this on a running engine!!! I let the engine run long enough to reach equilibrium temperature; chock, jack and support the car, then shut the engine down and immediately get my sample. Job 1 is to be very cautious, be safe, don't get burned. A splash in the face with hot oil is not funny; I wear safety glasses, a full face polycarbonate grinding shield and a leather welding jacket. Never been burned and don't plan on it. Who does?3. The kit came with a 30cc syringe and a 100ml or so canister. Is 30cc enough for the lab or must I fill the canister?
Answer: Blackstone says they need 3 oz; which works out to about 90 ml. https://www.conversion-metric.org/volume/ounce-to-milliliter