Even if you can find a motor, that 150 amp number is hard to get around from a systems perspective. What's the proposed duty cycle/load factor of the setup? With that much current, everything in the current path tends toward looking like a space heater, if not a fuse. Things like resistance of terminal connections matter, not to mention the heinous requirements of any relays/contactors, OCPD, etc. You get power dissipation EVERYWHERE.
24V 150A, or 240V 15A, I know what I'd be shooting for. Voltage is not your enemy in this case.
Love to see what power supply is backing this as well.
You might try looking for 3-phase motor/controller combos that take DC power input. I used one of these (96V nominal) successfully in a Formula Hybrid car in college. Speed control is a simple pot input.
The industry this machine operates in is standardized as 24V - source is a bank of lead acid batteries
The machine today operates between 150-200 amps...but as on/off
Our goal is to distribute the power between multiple sources instead of one source, and make everything variable instead of on/off
Duty cycle is intermittent at best. The machine spends much of its life sitting still. The particular function of the machine I am working on will operate for 45-60 seconds at best, then have plenty of time to resume to ambient.
Peak load is about 150 amps to get the load going...then settles to 80-100 amps.