Most marine lubrication systems use "towel" filters (older systems). That is a chest of about 50 gallons capacity that contains racks of towels laid over hanger rods, like a towel over a wall rod. Lid is closed down and the oil flows through maybe 50 towels. These are switched out at 200~400 hour intervals. They then get sent through a solvent cleaning and a laundry cycle to be put back in service.
Late model modern systems use a series of cleanable "K&N" style cartridge filters that can be cleaned too. Very few use a throw away cartridge filter. Some have paper roll by-pass filters similar to the Franz filters, but about 100 times the size.
Lube oil pumps are often not part of the main engine. They are separate pumps driven by another power source. Sometimes their own engines. Sometimes electric. They are somewhat variable speed and they are driven to keep constant flow to the main engines at constant pressure. The lube tanks have cooling water heat exchangers built in. Oil conditions are controlled as to viscosity and temp before being sent to the main engines.
Oil is changed out based on chemistry and analysis. Most engineers can do pH and other basic measure of oil conditions right on the ship. We are talking 500 to 2,000 gallons of lube oil, depending on ships configuration. Not a cheap oil change