But you are not like the other 95% of the population. By default the location services are "on" unless you go in and turn it off.Only if the phone's Location service is turned on. I keep mine off and only turn it on when I need to use the Nav function.
With that said, the carrier knows your whereabouts (roughly) just because the phone constantly communicates with nearby cell towers, and that's regardless if you use Android or iOS.
and we all know, the general population has no clue at all about this and all the information they leak.
Big difference between "roughly" and if I was in Best Buy at 1PM yesterday. Also available to anyone who hacks, steals or knows the gmail account and password to the phone, its that simple.
BTW- my post was to help the OP, telling him, who wants to know his kids whereabouts that if he sets up the phone with his gmail account or an account he sets up with the phone, he can go into the gmail account from any computer in the world at ANY time and know where the kids are and were by time, date, year. Its all free.
He can not go to his cell phone company for this information.