Cheat sheet for newbies reading UOA's

Posted by: Bambam

Cheat sheet for newbies reading UOA's - 03/20/08 09:22 AM

I am trying to interpret UOA's. I get info through others comments but like most newbies I don't know alot and get confused by certain elements etc. So Ityped this up for all to print out and have next to them for guidance. To be added/edited as we all see fit.

Mods please move if this is unappropriate for this particular forum.

WEAR METAL SOURCES

IRON……….CYLINDERS, GEARS, RINGS, CRANKSHAFTS, LINERS, BEARINGS, HOUSINGS, RODS, and PLATINGS

CHROMIUM……………..RINGS,ROLLER/TAPER BEARINGS, RODS, PLATINGS

LEAD……….BEARING OVERLAYS, ADDITIVES IN GEAR OIL AND GASOLINE

COPPER…………………BUSHINGS, BEARINGS, THRUST WASHERS, FRICITION PLATES, OIL COOLERS, ADDITIVE IN OIL

TIN………………………………….BEARINGS, BUSHINGS, PISTONS, PLATINGS

ALUMINUM………PISTONS, BEARINGS, PUMPS, BLOWERS, ROTORS, THRUST WASHERS

NICKEL……………………………………………………………………VALVES

SILVER………………………………………….BEARINGS,BUSHINGS,PLATING

MANGANESE……….TRACE ELEMENTS IN LINERS AND RINGS, ADDITIVE IN GASLOLINE.

TITANIUM……………………………………………………….TRACE ELEMENT

VANADIUM……………………………………………………..TRACE ELEMENT



CONTANIMENTS & SOURCES

SILICON…………………………………….ELEMENT USED TO DETERMINE THE LEVEL OF AIRBORNE DIRT AND ABRASIVES IN THE OIL.(SOMETIMES USED AS AN ANTI-FOAM AGENT)

BORON………………………….PRESENT IN MOST PERMANENT ANTI-FREEZE SYSTEMS AND COOLING SYSTEMS INHIBITORS (SOMETIMES USED AS AN ADDITIVE)

SODIUM………………………………….PRESENT IN MOST PERMANENT ANTI-FREEZE SYSTEMS AND COOLING SYSTEM INHIBITORS (SOMETIMES USED AS AN ADDITIVE)

POTASSIUM………….PRESENT IN MOST PERMANENT ANTI-FREEZE SYSTEMS AND COOLING SYSTEM INHIBITORS (SOMETIMES USED AS AN ADDITIVE IN GEAR OIL)



ADDITIVES AND THEIR FUNCTION

MAGNESIUM……………………….DISPERSENT/DETERGENT ADDITIVE

CALCIUM………………………….. DISPERSENT/DETERGENT ADDITIVE

BARIUM………………………….. DISPERSENT/DETERGENT ADDITIVE.

PHOSPHORUS…………………………………..….ANTI-WEAR ADDITIVE

ZINC……………………………………………….…. ANTI-WEAR ADDITIVE

MOLBDENUM………………………………….…… ANTI-WEAR ADDITIVE


FUEL DILUTION = UNBURNED FUEL IN THE OIL MAY SIGNAL FUEL SYSTEM LEAKS OR INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION.

FUEL SOOT = A RESULT IN INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION OR BLOW-BY. HIGH DRAIN LEVELS AMY INDICATES COMBUSTION PROBLEMS OR OVEREXTENDED DRAIN INTERVALS.


VISCOSITY = THE KINEMATIC VISCOSITY DETERMINED AT 40°C AND/OR 100°C IS A MEASURE OF THE FLOW RATE OF AN OIL IN RELATION TO TIME. THIS DATA IS USED TO ASSIGN AN SAE GRADE TO OIL.


SAE GRADE…………….MIN-cST-100°………………MAX-Cst

10w……………………4.10………………………….xx

20w………………………..5.60……………………….9.29

30w…………………………9.30……………………..…12.49

40w……………………….12.50……………………………16.29

50w………………………..16.30………………………………21.89
Posted by: Johnny

Re: Cheat sheet for newbies reading UOA's - 03/20/08 09:37 AM

Very nice. This might be a good sticky at the top of the UOA section for all to reference.
Posted by: ZZman

Re: Cheat sheet for newbies reading UOA's - 03/20/08 12:43 PM

There should also be a similar sticky in the car section
Posted by: Pablo

Re: Cheat sheet for newbies reading UOA's - 03/21/08 08:24 AM

Generally ok.....the viscosity table could be quite misleading. Atleast drop the "w"s Better to just post the whole table from J300: http://www.infineum.com/information/api-viscosity-2004.html
Posted by: D-Roc

Re: Cheat sheet for newbies reading UOA's - 03/23/08 03:42 PM

Awesome- great for those who are up on their UOA knowlege, but like who need a quick reference once in a while.
Posted by: Steve S

Re: Cheat sheet for newbies reading UOA's - 03/23/08 07:49 PM

Any one know where a condemnation limit chart is posted?
Posted by: Jim Allen

Re: Cheat sheet for newbies reading UOA's - 04/08/08 07:41 AM

Excellent work, Bambam. Thanks for taking the time to do it.
Posted by: RWEST

Re: Cheat sheet for newbies reading UOA's - 07/23/08 11:36 AM

So, to help out an oil-dork, what should the numbers be for a multi-vis, say, RTS 5-40?
Posted by: D-Roc

Re: Cheat sheet for newbies reading UOA's - 08/09/08 06:42 PM

For Admin, would it be possible to update the above info with oxidation, nitration and sulfation? This one specifically for myself, just a reference of the numbers on what is high and low. But also for others.
I know one way they are measured is using a spectrometer with how much infrared light is absorbed by the products of oxidation, nitration, sulfation, but not what is acceptable, high and low. Some uoa's also are coming through with just the number...Blackstone usually has perameters/guidelines, but some don't.
Posted by: lewdwig

Re: Cheat sheet for newbies reading UOA's - 08/17/08 10:25 AM

I'll look for something on TBN and include it.
Posted by: TSHACK

Re: Cheat sheet for newbies reading UOA's - 02/19/09 04:14 PM

AWESOME!!
Posted by: bloc

Re: Cheat sheet for newbies reading UOA's - 07/21/09 12:26 PM

I also wanted to request "condemnation" limits, or at least numbers at which we should start wondering.

TBN explanation would be nice too!!
Posted by: addyguy

Re: Cheat sheet for newbies reading UOA's - 12/09/09 01:54 PM

You missed Antimony - used by some oils in their add-pack; I think it's an anti-oxidant?
Posted by: White_Buffalo

Re: Cheat sheet for newbies reading UOA's - 12/09/09 10:17 PM

Originally Posted By: addyguy
You missed Antimony - used by some oils in their add-pack; I think it's an anti-oxidant?


Not that many labs test for Antimony. I have seen Amsoil's OAI testing and Polaris show it in there UOA reports. I thinks Schaeffer's uses Antimony as a high pressure additive.
Posted by: TucsonDon

Re: Cheat sheet for newbies reading UOA's - 01/10/10 09:42 PM

I think Boron is becoming part of the additive pack of some oils ... Rotella CJ-4 comes to mind as having increased the Boron.
Posted by: widman

Re: Cheat sheet for newbies reading UOA's - 03/10/10 06:55 AM

Boron is basically an anti-oxidant Has some anti-wear in different cases. You won't see a decent group I oil without it, but it can often be left out of group II, group III, or traditional synthetics.

Here is one of the most complete wear metals charts I've seen in a while
Wear Metals guide in PDF
Posted by: CourierDriver

Re: Cheat sheet for newbies reading UOA's - 04/11/10 07:42 AM

I like the report, Im gonna get a degree in chemistry someday. Im glad someone out there knows how to make all those elements stay together for 500k miles. Me, I just want it to run right, bottom line. amen
Posted by: Steve S

Re: Cheat sheet for newbies reading UOA's - 04/11/10 05:38 PM

http://www.bobistheoilguy.com/cms/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=50&Itemid=56 I would suggest!
Posted by: widman

Re: Cheat sheet for newbies reading UOA's - 05/20/10 06:07 PM

One more thing. A lot more engines are being assembled these days with Moly rings. Ring wear will show up as or with the moly that might be used as an antiwear/antioxidant.

Condemnation limits vary per engine and engine construction. Those that are published (CAT, Cummins, Detroit, etc.) are extremely high and not close to what is obtainable.
Posted by: sm00thpapa

Re: Cheat sheet for newbies reading UOA's - 07/31/11 10:06 PM

This is not bad but what about what the numbers mean? I mean is a high number or low number better for each category?
Posted by: mongo161

Re: Cheat sheet for newbies reading UOA's - 09/27/11 07:42 AM

Originally Posted By: TucsonDon
I think Boron is becoming part of the additive pack of some oils ... Rotella CJ-4 comes to mind as having increased the Boron.


+1 After looking at some VOA results on different oils, PCMO and Diesel, BORON is becoming more of an additive in Synthetic and Dino oils.
Posted by: ARHND

Re: Cheat sheet for newbies reading UOA's - 06/19/12 12:34 AM

How about the different tolerances of each equipment. All factories have their own, so, to be sure of each UOA you should also know the different allowances or minimuns.
Posted by: skyship

Re: Cheat sheet for newbies reading UOA's - 09/29/12 08:48 AM

Originally Posted By: RWEST
So, to help out an oil-dork, what should the numbers be for a multi-vis, say, RTS 5-40? confused


Blackstones will give averages for most engine types for you to compare results to. For a 1.9 TD I would not be too concerned until the Iron was over 50 ppm, Aluminium over 10, Chrome or Lead over 5 and Silicon from the air filter over 20.

The 5W/40 figures for a UOA are as follows:
SUS Vis at 210F: 66 - 78
cSt Vis at 100C: 11.9 - 15.3
Flash in F: > 410
Fuel % < 2
Antifreeze: 0
Water% < 0.1
Insolubles: < 0.8
TBN: > 1 (Normal) >3 (Severe service)

The trend is as important as the actual figures for wear metals, as every engine is subject to different use and to complicate matters you might have a temporary particle streak occur and rebuilt or new engines produce different figures.

The car should be driven at normal speeds for half an hour plus before draining the oil and the sample taken mid stream into a clean container.