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#3270798 - 02/04/14 09:39 PM PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives
MolaKule Offline


Registered: 06/05/02
Posts: 14560
Loc: Midwest
White Paper - P.E.A. and Aminic Fuel Additives
used by Permission of the Author

PolyEtherAmine (PEA) fuel additives are composed of specialized amines, which is the Subject of this White Paper.

The primary use of PEA’s in fuel is to control intake valve and combustion chamber deposits.

Amines in various forms are also used as anti-oxidants in lubricants.


Chemistry Classification:


Amines are classified as “Aliphatic Nitrogen Compounds” because these molecules contain at least one Nitrogen atom.

The most basic amine molecule has three hydrogen atoms and one nitrogen atom linked as in:

H
/
H-N-H


One of the primary amines is 2-propanamine Isopropylamine with the formula structure:

H
/
CH3-C-CH3
/
NH2

Most amine compounds are made by the reaction of some form of ammonia, NH3, with other chemicals.

The household version of ammonia is actually a weak solution of ammonium hydroxide, or NH3 in water, H2O.

Fuel Additive:

The actual amine fuel additive is a form of polyetheramine or P.E.A and is seen in blended fuels, and in fuel additives such as Techron and other OTC fuel system additives. The basic polyetheramine is added to fuels at about 50ppm but the level of polyetheramine depends greatly on the components of the blended fuel. Recall that gasoline or diesel fuels are actually blends of various light hydrocarbons of various cuts.

Newer versions of the polyetheramine are actually esterified polyetheramines called, “esteramines.” The esteramines adds polarity to the amine.

The polyether esteramines for OTC additives are added to solvent neutral oils at levels of approximately 400 ppm. The basic polyetheramines found in blended fuels are very synergisticic with the newer esteramines.

It is believed that the polar polyetheramine’s attach to the hydrocarbon deposit and via thermodynamic activation, softens the carbon. The flowstream across the valves and inside the combustion chamber then blow the hydrocarbon deposits to the exhaust stream.

Increases in hydrocarbon loads not only exit the exhaust stream, but can also enter the oil. It is always a good idea to change the oil after using a strong fuel system cleaner.


Edited by MolaKule (02/04/14 09:43 PM)
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#3270816 - 02/04/14 09:56 PM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: MolaKule]
dave1251 Online   happy


Registered: 07/15/05
Posts: 7146
Loc: Maricopa, AZ
Thank you Molakule. You have been and continue to be asset to this community and I appreciate your technical writings and teachings very much.
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#3270835 - 02/04/14 10:09 PM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: MolaKule]
901Memphis Online   content


Registered: 08/14/10
Posts: 5660
Loc: Northern Kentucky
I have a Techron addiction, thanks for the information.
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#3270843 - 02/04/14 10:16 PM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: 901Memphis]
jamesyarbrough Offline


Registered: 01/17/14
Posts: 295
Loc: Denison TX
Originally Posted By: 901Memphis
I have a Techron addiction, thanks for the information.


getdown lots of us do.
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#3270869 - 02/04/14 10:42 PM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: MolaKule]
Quest Offline


Registered: 12/19/04
Posts: 6369
Loc: beaver land EH?
Mola,

Your valuable contribution to this BITOG community is highly appreciated as always.

Q.
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#3270892 - 02/04/14 11:15 PM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: MolaKule]
Lead Shoes Offline


Registered: 03/03/10
Posts: 2373
Loc: Mn
Thanks for the interesting chemistry lesson on PEA cleaners
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#3270944 - 02/05/14 03:05 AM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: Lead Shoes]
galaxy333 Offline


Registered: 10/20/13
Posts: 57
Loc: uk
I had heard of them and knew they work with heat that's about it so your excellent post has answered a lot of questions that I didn't know where to find the answers and also put it over in lay mans terms so I can understand it easier than reading the full white paper which would confuse me to death.

THANK YOU Cheers1
THANK YOU


Edited by galaxy333 (02/05/14 03:09 AM)

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#3270961 - 02/05/14 05:56 AM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: MolaKule]
NMBurb02 Offline


Registered: 09/12/12
Posts: 1323
Loc: Crowntown, CA
Originally Posted By: MolaKule
Increases in hydrocarbon loads not only exit the exhaust stream, but can also enter the oil. It is always a good idea to change the oil after using a strong fuel system cleaner.

Chevron disagrees with the assertion that the oil should be changed after running a fuel system cleaner (or at least after running Techron Concentrate) and only backs off that a little when they say that you should do no more than three treatments in one OCI. I can't find the link to where I read that, but will try to dig it up (running off of a smartphone through the end of the week, so it isn't very easy to search for such things). That also makes sense to me as there shouldn't be much deposits getting past the rings and into the oil, as the amount being removed is not exceedingly large to begin with, most would find its way out through the exhaust stream, and what does make it into the oil should be easily filtered out (deposits) or flashed off (residual PEA and carrier fluid).
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#3271120 - 02/05/14 09:27 AM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: MolaKule]
boxcartommie22 Offline


Registered: 01/03/03
Posts: 2984
Loc: moutain country
thank you molaKule...
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#3271191 - 02/05/14 10:50 AM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: MolaKule]
MolaKule Offline


Registered: 06/05/02
Posts: 14560
Loc: Midwest
Quote:
That also makes sense to me as there shouldn't be much deposits getting past the rings and into the oil, as the amount being removed is not exceedingly large to begin with, most would find its way out through the exhaust stream, and what does make it into the oil should be easily filtered out (deposits) or flashed off (residual PEA and carrier fluid).


I too think the majority of hydrocarbon deposits will be flashed off and swept into the flowstream, but some will get into the engine oil.

I don't think it's a matter of Chevron disagreeing as it is they just don't suggest an oil change in order to save the customer oil change costs.

And, there are some carbon particles that are too small to be trapped by any oil filter. Eventually, those hydrocarbons will get into the oil and contribute to sludge precursors.

The paper is talking about two different amines; the one that goes into blended fuels and the one that is the esteramine, which is in the over-the-counter containers.

I have seen quite a few analyses in which a strong fuel system cleaner was used and it modified the UOA readings as compared to not running a fuel system cleaner (FSC).

I have also analyzed spark plugs after running FSCs; carbon buildup on the plug made it look like that cylinder had a bad ring or worn valve stem seal.

Of course, new cars should not need a fuel system cleaner until at least after the first oil change and then only once every quarter for maintenance purposes only.

Its your car, your wallet, your decision.


Edited by MolaKule (02/05/14 11:01 AM)
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#3271208 - 02/05/14 11:03 AM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: MolaKule]
MolaKule Offline


Registered: 06/05/02
Posts: 14560
Loc: Midwest
One question for you guys to ponder:

Quote:
The primary use of PEA’s in fuel is to control intake valve and combustion chamber deposits.


In a DI engine, is this still true?
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#3271285 - 02/05/14 12:02 PM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: MolaKule]
Quattro Pete Offline


Registered: 10/30/02
Posts: 25711
Loc: Michigan
Originally Posted By: MolaKule
In a DI engine, is this still true?

I would say 'no'. That's why dumping techron in your tank does not help control DI valve deposits, unless the engine is equipped with a secondary fuel injection (in addition to DI) in order to wash off the valves with fuel.
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#3271768 - 02/05/14 07:27 PM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: MolaKule]
MolaKule Offline


Registered: 06/05/02
Posts: 14560
Loc: Midwest
You are exactly right QuattroPete.

DI's inject the fuel after the intake stream.
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#3272475 - 02/06/14 12:06 PM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: MolaKule]
accent2012 Offline


Registered: 02/08/12
Posts: 441
Loc: Orlando, FL
Originally Posted By: MolaKule
You are exactly right QuattroPete.

DI's inject the fuel after the intake stream.


I think current generation DI engines spray twice before combustion. The first gen DI engines from VW/Audi did not do this and thus you had tons of carbon build up.

Most videos you see on youtube of the current generation DI engines show an initial burst of fuel while the intake valves are open when the piston is going down, and a second burst of fuel when the piston is going back up for compression (when the intake valves are fully closed). it this initial burst of fuel while the intake valves are open that helps the fuel "wash" away any deposits.

As far as I know, the Skyactive and Hyundai GAMMA and THETA engines do this.
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#3272665 - 02/06/14 03:01 PM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: MolaKule]
MolaKule Offline


Registered: 06/05/02
Posts: 14560
Loc: Midwest
Quote:
Most videos you see on youtube of the current generation DI engines show an initial burst of fuel while the intake valves are open when the piston is going down, and a second burst of fuel when the piston is going back up for compression (when the intake valves are fully closed). it this initial burst of fuel while the intake valves are open that helps the fuel "wash" away any deposits.


I don't think the fuel "washes" away anything. The PEA that is present in most fuels lifts the deposit via heat and turbulent airflow.

The point is, Upper Cylinder Lubes and fuel system cleaners do NOT clean intake valve deposits in DI engines because the Intake Valve is not wetted.



Edited by MolaKule (02/06/14 03:05 PM)
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#3281725 - 02/14/14 10:10 AM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: MolaKule]
StevieBoy Offline


Registered: 08/06/12
Posts: 128
Loc: Central Florida
Excellent info! Love it. Thank you, thank you, thank you....
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#3380078 - 05/24/14 02:20 PM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: MolaKule]
morris Offline


Registered: 08/24/08
Posts: 3681
Loc: ks, wichita
my mom told me that iam NEVER to old to learn. the older i get the more i know i dont know much at all. thanks.

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#3381923 - 05/27/14 04:18 AM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: MolaKule]
pbm Offline


Registered: 04/19/04
Posts: 5214
Loc: New York
Thanks Molakule...great info as usual.

"It is believed that the polar polyetheramine’s attach to the hydrocarbon deposit and via thermodynamic activation, softens the carbon. The flowstream across the valves and inside the combustion chamber then blow the hydrocarbon deposits to the exhaust stream.

Increases in hydrocarbon loads not only exit the exhaust stream, but can also enter the oil. It is always a good idea to change the oil after using a strong fuel system cleaner."


This is what I've always believed and is the reason I run a PEA FSC near the end of my OCI. I also believe it is better to run it during short trip driving (several stop and starts to allow the PEA to 'soak in' to the valves etc...) rather than on a long highway drive. It seems like a long highway drive is a good thing subsequent to the FSC treatment (to blow out the previously softened carbon).

I've also always felt that using FSC's in warmer weather was more effective but I'm probably being anal....




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#3435356 - 07/25/14 02:05 PM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: MolaKule]
RF Overlord Offline


Registered: 11/08/03
Posts: 3130
Loc: Cape Cod, MA
Mola is da' MAN... thumbsup
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#3435616 - 07/25/14 06:24 PM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: MolaKule]
Rosetta Offline


Registered: 07/06/14
Posts: 211
Loc: Sta Catarina, Br
"Most amine compounds are made by the reaction of some form of ammonia, NH3, with other chemicals."

Witch other chemicals would be?
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1995 Ford Taurus 3.0 Vulcan 78k miles Mobil 1 5w30
1993 Subaru Impreza EJ16 121k miles Mobil 1 15w50
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#3436404 - 07/26/14 02:54 PM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: Rosetta]
MolaKule Offline


Registered: 06/05/02
Posts: 14560
Loc: Midwest
Originally Posted By: Rosetta
"Most amine compounds are made by the reaction of some form of ammonia, NH3, with other chemicals."

Witch other chemicals would be?


Too long a list to post here.

One can always consult an Organic Chemistry book and see some of the other compounds.

One could always start here:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amine
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#3436582 - 07/26/14 06:26 PM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: Quest]
Clevy Offline


Registered: 11/11/10
Posts: 7237
Loc: Saskatoon canada
Originally Posted By: Quest
Mola,

Your valuable contribution to this BITOG community is highly appreciated as always.

Q.



I couldn't agree more.

Thanks Molekule
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#3436819 - 07/26/14 10:13 PM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: MolaKule]
Rosetta Offline


Registered: 07/06/14
Posts: 211
Loc: Sta Catarina, Br
No, just look for most epoxy (like Araldite) glue, the hardener part is mostly PEA. Jeffamine D400 (Huntsman) or Baxxodur EC302 (BASF), they're pure PEA.
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#3436950 - 07/27/14 12:51 AM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: Rosetta]
MolaKule Offline


Registered: 06/05/02
Posts: 14560
Loc: Midwest
Originally Posted By: Rosetta
No, just look for most epoxy (like Araldite) glue, the hardener part is mostly PEA. Jeffamine D400 (Huntsman) or Baxxodur EC302 (BASF), they're pure PEA.


The current topic and the one that is the focus of this discussion
is PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives.

We're not discussing adhesives, curing agents, or cutting fluids or any other off-topic compound.
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#3437146 - 07/27/14 09:13 AM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: MolaKule]
Rosetta Offline


Registered: 07/06/14
Posts: 211
Loc: Sta Catarina, Br
I'm sorry, I thought I was discussing some PEA also, where it is also found. smile
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1993 Subaru Impreza EJ16 121k miles Mobil 1 15w50
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