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#3270798 - 02/04/14 09:39 PM PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives
MolaKule Offline


Registered: 06/05/02
Posts: 14565
Loc: Midwest
White Paper - P.E.A. and Aminic Fuel Additives
used by Permission of the Author

PolyEtherAmine (PEA) fuel additives are composed of specialized amines, which is the Subject of this White Paper.

The primary use of PEA’s in fuel is to control intake valve and combustion chamber deposits.

Amines in various forms are also used as anti-oxidants in lubricants.


Chemistry Classification:


Amines are classified as “Aliphatic Nitrogen Compounds” because these molecules contain at least one Nitrogen atom.

The most basic amine molecule has three hydrogen atoms and one nitrogen atom linked as in:

H
/
H-N-H


One of the primary amines is 2-propanamine Isopropylamine with the formula structure:

H
/
CH3-C-CH3
/
NH2

Most amine compounds are made by the reaction of some form of ammonia, NH3, with other chemicals.

The household version of ammonia is actually a weak solution of ammonium hydroxide, or NH3 in water, H2O.

Fuel Additive:

The actual amine fuel additive is a form of polyetheramine or P.E.A and is seen in blended fuels, and in fuel additives such as Techron and other OTC fuel system additives. The basic polyetheramine is added to fuels at about 50ppm but the level of polyetheramine depends greatly on the components of the blended fuel. Recall that gasoline or diesel fuels are actually blends of various light hydrocarbons of various cuts.

Newer versions of the polyetheramine are actually esterified polyetheramines called, “esteramines.” The esteramines adds polarity to the amine.

The polyether esteramines for OTC additives are added to solvent neutral oils at levels of approximately 400 ppm. The basic polyetheramines found in blended fuels are very synergisticic with the newer esteramines.

It is believed that the polar polyetheramine’s attach to the hydrocarbon deposit and via thermodynamic activation, softens the carbon. The flowstream across the valves and inside the combustion chamber then blow the hydrocarbon deposits to the exhaust stream.

Increases in hydrocarbon loads not only exit the exhaust stream, but can also enter the oil. It is always a good idea to change the oil after using a strong fuel system cleaner.


Edited by MolaKule (02/04/14 09:43 PM)
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#3270816 - 02/04/14 09:56 PM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: MolaKule]
Happy Birthday dave1251 Offline


Registered: 07/15/05
Posts: 7166
Loc: Maricopa, AZ
Thank you Molakule. You have been and continue to be asset to this community and I appreciate your technical writings and teachings very much.
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#3270835 - 02/04/14 10:09 PM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: MolaKule]
901Memphis Offline


Registered: 08/14/10
Posts: 5671
Loc: Northern Kentucky
I have a Techron addiction, thanks for the information.
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#3270843 - 02/04/14 10:16 PM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: 901Memphis]
jamesyarbrough Offline


Registered: 01/17/14
Posts: 295
Loc: Denison TX
Originally Posted By: 901Memphis
I have a Techron addiction, thanks for the information.


getdown lots of us do.
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#3270869 - 02/04/14 10:42 PM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: MolaKule]
Quest Offline


Registered: 12/19/04
Posts: 6369
Loc: beaver land EH?
Mola,

Your valuable contribution to this BITOG community is highly appreciated as always.

Q.
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#3270892 - 02/04/14 11:15 PM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: MolaKule]
Lead Shoes Offline


Registered: 03/03/10
Posts: 2373
Loc: Mn
Thanks for the interesting chemistry lesson on PEA cleaners
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#3270944 - 02/05/14 03:05 AM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: Lead Shoes]
galaxy333 Offline


Registered: 10/20/13
Posts: 57
Loc: uk
I had heard of them and knew they work with heat that's about it so your excellent post has answered a lot of questions that I didn't know where to find the answers and also put it over in lay mans terms so I can understand it easier than reading the full white paper which would confuse me to death.

THANK YOU Cheers1
THANK YOU


Edited by galaxy333 (02/05/14 03:09 AM)

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#3270961 - 02/05/14 05:56 AM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: MolaKule]
NMBurb02 Offline


Registered: 09/12/12
Posts: 1323
Loc: Crowntown, CA
Originally Posted By: MolaKule
Increases in hydrocarbon loads not only exit the exhaust stream, but can also enter the oil. It is always a good idea to change the oil after using a strong fuel system cleaner.

Chevron disagrees with the assertion that the oil should be changed after running a fuel system cleaner (or at least after running Techron Concentrate) and only backs off that a little when they say that you should do no more than three treatments in one OCI. I can't find the link to where I read that, but will try to dig it up (running off of a smartphone through the end of the week, so it isn't very easy to search for such things). That also makes sense to me as there shouldn't be much deposits getting past the rings and into the oil, as the amount being removed is not exceedingly large to begin with, most would find its way out through the exhaust stream, and what does make it into the oil should be easily filtered out (deposits) or flashed off (residual PEA and carrier fluid).
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#3271120 - 02/05/14 09:27 AM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: MolaKule]
boxcartommie22 Offline


Registered: 01/03/03
Posts: 2985
Loc: moutain country
thank you molaKule...
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#3271191 - 02/05/14 10:50 AM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: MolaKule]
MolaKule Offline


Registered: 06/05/02
Posts: 14565
Loc: Midwest
Quote:
That also makes sense to me as there shouldn't be much deposits getting past the rings and into the oil, as the amount being removed is not exceedingly large to begin with, most would find its way out through the exhaust stream, and what does make it into the oil should be easily filtered out (deposits) or flashed off (residual PEA and carrier fluid).


I too think the majority of hydrocarbon deposits will be flashed off and swept into the flowstream, but some will get into the engine oil.

I don't think it's a matter of Chevron disagreeing as it is they just don't suggest an oil change in order to save the customer oil change costs.

And, there are some carbon particles that are too small to be trapped by any oil filter. Eventually, those hydrocarbons will get into the oil and contribute to sludge precursors.

The paper is talking about two different amines; the one that goes into blended fuels and the one that is the esteramine, which is in the over-the-counter containers.

I have seen quite a few analyses in which a strong fuel system cleaner was used and it modified the UOA readings as compared to not running a fuel system cleaner (FSC).

I have also analyzed spark plugs after running FSCs; carbon buildup on the plug made it look like that cylinder had a bad ring or worn valve stem seal.

Of course, new cars should not need a fuel system cleaner until at least after the first oil change and then only once every quarter for maintenance purposes only.

Its your car, your wallet, your decision.


Edited by MolaKule (02/05/14 11:01 AM)
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#3271208 - 02/05/14 11:03 AM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: MolaKule]
MolaKule Offline


Registered: 06/05/02
Posts: 14565
Loc: Midwest
One question for you guys to ponder:

Quote:
The primary use of PEA’s in fuel is to control intake valve and combustion chamber deposits.


In a DI engine, is this still true?
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#3271285 - 02/05/14 12:02 PM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: MolaKule]
Quattro Pete Offline


Registered: 10/30/02
Posts: 25716
Loc: Michigan
Originally Posted By: MolaKule
In a DI engine, is this still true?

I would say 'no'. That's why dumping techron in your tank does not help control DI valve deposits, unless the engine is equipped with a secondary fuel injection (in addition to DI) in order to wash off the valves with fuel.
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#3271768 - 02/05/14 07:27 PM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: MolaKule]
MolaKule Offline


Registered: 06/05/02
Posts: 14565
Loc: Midwest
You are exactly right QuattroPete.

DI's inject the fuel after the intake stream.
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#3272475 - 02/06/14 12:06 PM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: MolaKule]
accent2012 Offline


Registered: 02/08/12
Posts: 441
Loc: Orlando, FL
Originally Posted By: MolaKule
You are exactly right QuattroPete.

DI's inject the fuel after the intake stream.


I think current generation DI engines spray twice before combustion. The first gen DI engines from VW/Audi did not do this and thus you had tons of carbon build up.

Most videos you see on youtube of the current generation DI engines show an initial burst of fuel while the intake valves are open when the piston is going down, and a second burst of fuel when the piston is going back up for compression (when the intake valves are fully closed). it this initial burst of fuel while the intake valves are open that helps the fuel "wash" away any deposits.

As far as I know, the Skyactive and Hyundai GAMMA and THETA engines do this.
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#3272665 - 02/06/14 03:01 PM Re: PEA and Amine-based Fuel System Additives [Re: MolaKule]
MolaKule Offline


Registered: 06/05/02
Posts: 14565
Loc: Midwest
Quote:
Most videos you see on youtube of the current generation DI engines show an initial burst of fuel while the intake valves are open when the piston is going down, and a second burst of fuel when the piston is going back up for compression (when the intake valves are fully closed). it this initial burst of fuel while the intake valves are open that helps the fuel "wash" away any deposits.


I don't think the fuel "washes" away anything. The PEA that is present in most fuels lifts the deposit via heat and turbulent airflow.

The point is, Upper Cylinder Lubes and fuel system cleaners do NOT clean intake valve deposits in DI engines because the Intake Valve is not wetted.



Edited by MolaKule (02/06/14 03:05 PM)
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